Darren Fa

Associated researcher 

University of Gibraltar
Europa Point Campus
GX11 1AA

  (00350) 56001915

ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5900-9814

Research Interests

• Palaeoecology and human evolution, especially linked to the exctinction of the Neanderthals.
• Relationship between prehistoric humans and the environment, particularly the sea and use of marine resources.
• Extinction Processes, Conservation and Ecology of Endangered Species.

Short Bio

• September 1999 – July 2014: Education, Research & Survey Officer at the Gibraltar Museum.
• August 2001 – July 2014: Co-Director of the Underwater Research Unit (URU) Gibraltar Museum.
• September 2004 – July 2014: Deputy Director of the Gibraltar Museum.
• August 2014 – Present: Director of Academic Programmes and Research at the University of Gibraltar.

• ResearchGate Score: 30.83
• Registered European Commission Expert (Id: EX2014D194355) on Environment and Higher Education.
• Elected Fellow of the Linnean Society of London (FLS).
• Member of the Gibraltar Government’s UNESCO World Heritage Working Group.
• Scientific Diver.
• Nautical Archaeological Society Instructor.
• Well-versed in Statistics.

For my complete CV please click HERE

Key Publications

• Fa, D.A., Finlayson, J.C., Finlayson, G., Giles Pacheco, F., Rodríguez-Vidal, J. and Gutíerrez López, J.M. (2016). Marine Mollusc exploitation as evidenced by the Gorham’s Cave (Gibraltar) excavations 1998-2005: the Middle-Upper Palaeolithic Transition. Quaternary International, 407 (Part B): 16-28.  Link

• Rodríguez-Vidal, J., d’Errico, F., Giles Pacheco, F., Blasco, R., Rodell, J., Jennings, R.P., Queffelec, A., Finlayson, G., Fa, D.A., Gutíerrez López, J.M., Carrión, J.S., Negro, J.J., Finlayson, S., Cáceres, L.M., Bernal, M.A., Fernández Jimenez, S and Finlayson, C. (2014). A rock engraving made by Neanderthals in Gibraltar. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science.  Link

• Shipton, C., Clarkson, C., Bernal, M.A., Boivin, N., Finlayson, C., Finlayson, G., Fa, D., Giles Pacheco, F. and Petraglia, M. (2013). Variation in Lithic Technological Strategies among the Neanderthals of Gibraltar. PLoS ONE, 8(6): e65185.  Link

• Rodríguez-Vidal, J., Finlayson, G., Finlayson, C., Negro, J.J., Cáceres, L.M., Fa, D.A. and Carrión, J.S. (2013). Undrowning a lost world – the Marine Isotope Stage 3 landscape of Gibraltar. Geomorphology, 203: 105-114.  Link

• Fa, D.A., Finlayson, C., Finlayson, G., Gutierrez, J.M., Giles Pacheco, F. and Rodriguez-Vidal, J. (2012). An overview of over thirty millennia of marine mollusc exploitation at Gorham’s Cave, Gibraltar. Actas del III Reunión Científica De Arqueomalacología De La Península Ibérica, p. 33.

• Jiménez-Espejo, F.J., Rodríguez-Vidal, J., Finlayson, C., Martínez-Ruiz, F., Carrión J.S., García-Alix, A., Paytan, A., Giles Pacheco, F., Fa, D.A., Finlayson, G., Cortés-Sánchez, M., Rodrigo Gámiz, M., González-Donoso, J.M., Linares, M.D., Cáceres, L.M., Fernández, S., Iijima, K. and Martínez Aguirre, A. (2012). Environmental conditions and geomorphologic changes during the Middle-Upper Paleolithic in the southern Iberian Peninsula. Geomorphology, 180-181: 205-216. 1  Link

• Finlayson, C., Brown, K., Blasco, R., Rosell, J., Negro, J.J., Bortolotti, G.R., Finlayson, G., Sánchez Marco, A., Giles Pacheco, F., Rodríguez Vidal, J., Carrión, J.S., Fa, D.A. and Rodríguez Llanes, J.M.  (2012). Birds of a Feather: Neanderthal Exploitation of Raptors and Corvids. PLoS ONE 7(9): e45927.  Link

• Cortés-Sánchez, M., Morales-Muñiz, A., Simón-Vallejo M.D., Lozano-Francisco, M.C., Vera-Peláez, J.L., Finlayson, C., Rodríguez-Vidal7, J., Delgado-Huertas, A., Jiménez-Espejo, F.J., Martínez-Ruiz, F., Martínez-Aguirre, M.A., Pascual-Granged, A.J., Bergadà-Zapata, M.M., Gibaja-Bao, J.F., Riquelme-Cantal, J.A., López-Sáez J.A., Rodrigo-Gámiz, M.,  Sakai, S., Sugisaki, S., Finlayson, G., Fa, D.A. and Bicho, N.F. (2011). Earliest Known Use of Marine Resources by Neanderthals. PLoS ONE 6(9):e24026.  Link

• Finlayson, C., Monclova, A., Carrión, J.S., Fa, D.A., Finlayson, G., Rodríguez-Vidal, J., Fierro, E., Fernández, S., Bernal-Gómez, M. and Giles-Pacheco, F. (2011). Ecological transitions – but for whom? A perspective from the Pleistocene. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 329-330: 1-9.  Link

• Rodríguez-Vidal, J., Cáceres, L.M., Abad, M., Ruiz, F., González-Regalado, M.L. Finlayson, C., Finlayson, G., Fa, D.A., Rodríguez-Llanes, J.M. and Bailey, G. (2011). The recorded evidence of AD 1755 Atlantic tsunami on the Gibraltar coast.  Journal of Iberian Geology, 37(2): 177-193.

• Riquelme Cantal, J.A., Finlayson, C., Giles Pacheco, F., Rodríguez Vidal, J., Finlayson, G., Santiago, A. and Fa, D.A. (2011). La fauna de mamíferos solutrense de Gorham’s Cave, Gibraltar. In J.J. Fernández Caro and R. Baena Escudero (eds.), Arqueología, Paleontología y Geomorfología del Cuaternario en España: X aniversario del Seminario Francisco Sousa (La Rinconada, Sevilla), pp. 161–178. ISBN 978-84-694-3625-7

• Brown, K., Fa, D.A., Finlayson, G. and Finlayson, C. (2011). Small Game and Marine Resource Exploitation by Neanderthals: The Evidence from Gibraltar. In N. Bicho, J. Haws and L. Davis (eds.), Trekking the Shore: Changing Coastlines and the Antiquity of Coastal Settlement, Interdisciplinary Contributions to Archaeology, pp. 247-272. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4419-8219-3_10

• Jennings, R.P., Finlayson, C., Fa, D.A. and Finlayson, G. (2011). Southern Iberia as a refuge for the last Neanderthal populations. Journal of Biogeography, 38(10): 1873-1885.

• Ferguson, J.E., Henderson, G.M., Fa, D.A., Finlayson, J.C. and Charnley, N.R. (2011). Increased seasonality in the Western Mediterranean during the last glacial from limpet shell geochemistry. Earth & Planetary Science Letters, 308: 325-333.

• Finlayson, C., Carrión, J., Brown, K., Finlayson, G., Sánchez-Marco, A., Fa, D.A., Rodríguez-Vidal, J., Fernández, S., Fierro, E., Bernal-Gómez, M. and Giles-Pacheco, F. (2011). The Homo habitat niche: Using the avian fossil record to depict ecological characteristics of Palaeolithic Eurasian hominins. Quaternary Science Reviews, 30 (11-12): 1525-1532.

• Colonese, A., Mannino, M.A., Bar-Yosef Mayer, D.E., Fa, D.A., Finlayson, J.C., Lubell, D. and Stiner, M.C. (2011). Marine mollusc exploitation in Mediterranean prehistory: an overview. Quaternary International, 239: 86-103.

• Finlayson, C., Fa, D.A., Finlayson, G. and Jennings, R. (2011). Lost worlds: Biogeography of the Genus Homo in the Plio-Pleistocene. 5th Biennial Conference of the International Biogeography Society: Heraklion, Crete, Greece. Book of Abstracts, p. 11.

• Rodríguez-Vidal, J., Cáceres, L.M., Ruiz, F., Abad, M., Finlayson, C., Finlayson, G., Fa, D.A. and Martínez-Aguirre, A. (2010). Las arenas eólicas del Pleistoceno Superior en Gibraltar. Geogaceta, 48: 27-30.

• Rodríguez-Vidal, J., Cáceres, L.M., Ruiz, F., Abad, M., Fa, D.A., Finlayson, G., Finlayson, C., and Bailey, G. (2009). Geomarkers of AD 1755 Tsunami on Gibraltar. In R. Pérez-López, C. Grützner, J. Lario, K. Reicherter and P.G. Silva (eds.), Archaeoseismology and Palaeoseismology in the Alpine-Himalayan Collisional Zone. Proceedings of the 1st INQUA-IGCP-567 International Workshop on Earthquake Archaeology and Palaeoseismology, pp. 122-124. Madrid: Universidad Politéctnica de Madrid. ISBN: 978-84-7484-217-3

• Muñiz, F., Cáceres, L., Rodríguez-Vidal, J., Finlayson, C., Fa, D.A. and Finlayson, G. (2009). Datos preliminaries sobre la icnología en dunas costeras del Pleistoceno superior de Gibraltar. In P. Palmqvist and J.A. (co-ords.), Comunicaciones de las XXV Jornadas de la Sociedad Española de Paleontología, “Darwin, la Teoría de la Evolución y la Paleontología”. Universidad de Málaga. ISBN: 978-84-9747-312-5

• Ferguson, J., Fa, D.A., Finlayson, J.C. and Henderson, G.M. (2008). A record of seasonality in the Western Mediterranean from the LGM to recent using stable isotopes and trace elements in limpet shells. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 72(12): A263.

• Finlayson, C., Fa, D.A., Jimenez-Espejo, F., Carrion, J.S., Finlayson, G., Giles Pacheco, F., Rodríguez Vidal, J., Stringer, C. and Martinez Ruiz, F. (2008). Gorham’s Cave, Gibraltar : The persistence of a Neanderthal population. Quaternary International, 181: 64-71.

• Fa, D.A. (2008). Effects of tidal amplitude on intertidal resource availability and dispersal pressure in prehistoric human coastal populations: the Mediterranean-Atlantic transition. Quaternary Science Reviews, 27(23-24): 2194-2209.

• Bailey, G., Carrión, J.S., Fa, D.A., Finlayson, C., Finlayson, G. and Rodríguez-Vidal, J. (2008). The coastal shelf of the Mediterranean and beyond: corridor and refugium for human populations in the Pleistocene. Quaternary Science Reviews, 27(23-24): 2095-2099.

• Rodríguez-Vidal, Cáceres, L.M., J., Martínez-Aguirre, A., Alcaraz, J.M., Finlayson, C., Finlayson, G. and Fa, D.A. (2008). El registro altitudinal de cambio climático en series kársticas pleistoceas de las Béticas occidentales. Geo-Temas, 10: 759-762.

• Giles Pacheco, F., Finlayson, C., Finlayson, G., Fa, D.A., J. Rodríguez-Vidal, J., Cáceres, L.M., Martínez-Aguirre, A., Santiago, A. and Gutiérrez López, G.M.  (2007). Industria del Paleolítico Medio en Beefsteak Cave (Gibraltar): implicaciones Paleoambientales. Geogaceta, 43: 131-134.

• Rodríguez-Vidal, J., Abad, M., Cáceres, L.M., Ruiz, F., Fa, D.A., Finlayson, C., Finlayson, G. and Martínez-Aguirre, A. (2007). Evidencias erosivos y bioerosivas en la costa rocosa de Gibraltar al inicio del último interglacial. In L. Gómez-Pujol and J.J. Fornós (eds.), Investigaciones Recientes (2005-2007) en Geomorfología Litoral, pp.197-201. UIB, IMEDEA, SHNB, SEG. ISBN: 978-84-611-5926-0

• Rodríguez-Vidal, J., Finlayson, C., Flemming, N., Abad, M., Cáceres, L.M., Ruiz, F., Fa, D.A. and Finlayson, G. (2007). Rasgos erosivos de niveles marinos cuaternarios en las laderas del Peñon de Gibraltar. In L. Gómez-Pujol and  J.J. Fornós (eds.), Investigaciones Recientes (2005-2007) en Geomorfología Litoral, pp. 163-166. UIB, IMEDEA, SHNB, SEG. ISBN: 978-84-611-5926-0  Link

• Jiménez-Espejo, F.J., Martínez-Ruiz, F., Finlayson, C., Paytan, A., Sakamoto, T., Ortega-Huertas, M., Finlayson, G., Iijima, K., Gallego-Torres, D. and Fa, D.A. (2007). Climate forcing and Neandertal extinction in Southern Iberia: insights from a multiproxy marine record. Quaternary Science Reviews, 26: 836-852.

• Finlayson, C., Giles Pacheco, F., Rodriguez-Vidal, J. Fa, D.A., Gutierrez López, J.M., Santiago Pérez, A., Finlayson, G., Allue, E., Preysler, J., Cáceres, I., Carrión, J.S., Férnandez Jalvo, Y., Gleed-Owen, C., Jimenez Espejo, F.J., López, P., López Sáez, J.A., Riquelme Cantal, J.A., Sánchez Marco, A., Giles Guzman, F., Brown, K., Fuentes, N., Valarino, C., Villalpando, A., Stringer, C., Martinez Ruiz, F. and Sakamoto, T. (2006). Late survival of Neanderthals at the southernmost extreme of Europe. Nature, 443: 850-853.

• Ferguson, J.E., Fa, D.A., Atkinson, T.C., Barton, R.N.E., Ditchfield, P., Henderson, G.M. and Finlayson, J.C. (2006). High resolution climate records from stable isotopes and trace metals in mollusc shells from Gibraltar. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 70: 170.

• Giles Pacheco, F., Finlayson, C., Rodríguez Vidal, J., Santiago, A., Gutíerrez, J.M., Finlayson, G., Fa, D.A., Giles Guzmán, F., Brown, K. and Valarino, C. (2005). Revisión arqueológica del poblamiento prehistórico del Peñón de Gibraltar. Actas VI Reunión de Cuaternario Ibérico, Gibraltar, pp.68-69.

• Finlayson, C., Finlayson, G., Fa, D.A. and Recio Espejo, J.M. (2005). Bioclimatic Specialists and Generalists – Scars of the Quaternary Glaciations. In J. Rodríguez Vidal, C. Finlayson and F. Giles Pacheco (eds.), Cuaternario Mediterráneo y Poblamiento de Homínidos, pp. 11-13. Gibraltar: AEQUA.

• Jennings, R.P., Finlayson, J.C., Fa, D.A. and Finlayson, G. (2004). Was climate change or the arrival of modern humans the leading factor in the extinction of the Neanderthals from southern Iberia? Book of Abstracts, Calpe 2004 Conference, Perspectives on Human Origins, 26th-29th August, John Mackintosh Hall, Gibraltar.

• Finlayson, C., Fa, D.A., Finlayson, G., Giles Pacheco, F. and Rodríguez Vidal, J. (2004). Did the Moderns kill off the Neanderthals? A reply to d’Errico & Sánchez Goñi. Quaternary Science Reviews, 23: 1205-1209.

• Giles Pacheco, F., Finlayson, C., Santiago Pérez, A., Fa, D.A., Gutiérrez López, J.M. and  Finlayson, G. (2003). The effect of climate change on the distribution of humans in southern Iberia in the late Quaternary. In M.B. Ruiz Zapata, M. Dorado Valiño, A. Valdeolmillos Rodríguez, M.J. Gil García, T. Bardají Azcárate, I. Bustamante Gutiérrez and I. Martínez Mendizábal (eds.), Quaternary climatic changes and environmental crises in the Mediterranean Region, pp. 67-79. Alcalá de Henares, Universidad de Alcalá-MCYT-INQUA (Commission on Human Evolution and Palaeoecology).

• Finlayson, C., Giles Pacheco, F., Rodriguez Vidal, J., Fa, D.A., Finlayson, G., Santiago Pérez, A. and Gutierrez López, J.M. (2003). Diseño y estratégias de la investigación en el sur de la Península Ibérica. In Sociedades Recolectoras y Primeros Productores: Actas de las Jornadas Temáticas Andaluzas de Arqueología, Arqueología Monografías, Consejería de Cultura y Dirección General de Bienes Culturales, Junta de Andalucía, Spain.

• Lario, J., Fa, D.A., Smith, P., Finlayson, J.C., Zazo, C. and Goy, J.L. (2001). Reconocimiento de paleoniveles freáticos en cavidades sumergidas de Gibraltar y su relación con variaciones del nivel del mar. In Actas V Iberian Quaternary Meeting, I Quaternary Congress of Countries of Iberian Languages, pp. 249-251. Lisboa: GTPEQ/ SGP/ AEQUA.

• Giles Pacheco, F., Finlayson, C., Rodriguez Vidal, J., Santiago Pérez, A., Gutierrez López, J. Ma, Fa, D.A., Mata Almonte, E., Finlayson, G and Giles Guzmán, F. (2001). Referencia a las dataciones en los sistemas kársticos con ocupaciones humanas del Peñon de Gibraltar. Boletín No 2, Sedeck, Sociedad Española de Espeleología y Ciencias del Karst, pp. 86-90.

• Fa, D.A., Finlayson, G. and Smith, P. (2001). El karst sumergido de Gibraltar. Boletín No 2, Sedeck, Sociedad Española de Espeleología y Ciencias del Karst, pp. 82-83.

• Fa, D.A., Finlayson, C., Giles Pacheco, F., Finlayson, G., Aguilera, F. and Aguilera, J. (2001). Building bridges: new perspectives on Out-of-Africa. In C. Finlayson (ed.), Neanderthals and Modern Humans in Late Pleistocene Eurasia. Abstracts from the Calpe 2001 Conference: Gibraltar: Gibraltar Government Heritage Publications.

• Fa, D.A., Bound, M., Finlayson, C. and Lario, J. (2001). The underwater archaeological and historical heritage of Gibraltar. Almoraima, 25: 429-436.

• Finlayson, C., Giles Pacheco, F., Barton, R.N.E., Fa, D.A., Finlayson, G., Gutierrez López, J.-M. and Santiago Pérez, A. (2000). Use of the landscape by humans from the Middle Palaeolithic to the Neolithic – the case of the northern shore of the Strait of Gibraltar. Almoraima, 25: 65-72.

• Finlayson, C., Fa, D.A. and Finlayson, G. (2000). Biogeography of human colonizations and extinctions in the Pleistocene. Memoirs Gibcemed, 1: 3-69.

• Currant, A.P., Barton, R.N.E., Finlayson, J.C., Stringer, C.B., Giles Pacheco, F., Finlayson, G. and Fa, D.A. (2000). Human occupation of Gibraltar during Oxygen Isotope Stages 2 and 3 and a comment on the late survival of Neanderthals in the southern Iberian Peninsula. Proc. 3rd Iberian Archaeological Congress, Vila Real, Portugal.

• Fa, D.A. and Sheader, M. (2000). Zonation patterns and fossilization potential of the rocky-shore biota along the Mediterranean-Atlantic interface: a possible framework for environmental reconstruction. In J.C. Finlayson, G. Finlayson and D.A. Fa (eds.), Gibraltar During the Quaternary, pp. 237-251. Gibraltar: Gibraltar Government Publications,

• Fa, D.A., Lario, J., Smith, P. and Finlayson, C. (2000). Submerged features around the coast of Gibraltar and their potential use by early humans. I Congreso Andaluz de Espeleología, Actas. Ronda, pp. 143-149.


• Gibraltar Caves Project (ongoing).
• Splashcos (Submerged Prehistoric Archaeology and Landscapes of the Continental Shelf) 2009-2013.
• Was a Principal Investigator of a NERC-funded EFCHED project (GIBRAMAR), which involved collaborations between the Gibraltar Museum, York University and Southampton University’s National Oceanography Centre, aimed at researching the undersea landscapes.